If potatoes are called the king of vegetables, then there will be no mistake. By the way, this is basically a US vegetable. But potatoes are the basis of India’s vegetables. Without this, we cannot even imagine more than half of the food. Potato farming is done in 27 states of India. Uttar Pradesh is a pioneer in its cultivation.
Potatoes are a rich source of starch, vitamins especially C and B1, and minerals. They contain 20.6 percent carbohydrates, 2.1 percent protein, 0.3 percent fat, 1.1 percent crude fiber, and 0.9 percent ash. They also contain a good amount of essential amino acids like leucine, tryptophan, and isoleucine, etc.
Traditional cultivation of potato and soil and climate: – Loam and sandy loam soils having plenty of organic matter are suitable for its cultivation. The temperature has great importance in its cultivation. The average temperature for its good yield is 17 to 21℃ at the time of tuber formation.
Field preparation: –
In the last week of September, plowing should be done 4 to 5 times. Watering is also mandatory after each plowing. Mix rotten dung at the rate of 20 tonnes per hectare with final plowing. And to avoid termite infestation, mix 25-30 kg per hectare in lindane soil.
Crop cycle: – The quality of soil is lost every year by cultivating potatoes in the same field. Soil becomes the home of insects and diseases, 2 crops are potatoes and 3 crops are good crops in the intensive farming system.
Improved potato varieties and sowing time.
Among the early varieties are Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Kubera, Kufri Jyoti, etc. These varieties are ready in 80-90 days. Kufri Sindhuri is more beneficial among the late varieties.
Time of sowing: – The temperature at the time of sowing should be between 18-30℃. It should be sown from the middle of October to the middle of November.
Soil growing: – When the plant is 20-25 days, then weeding. Then put half the amount of nitrogen fertilizer 50 cm away from the root and give it to the soil.
Irrigation: – Regular irrigation is necessary after one week after sowing first irrigation and then 8-10 days, give water only for half a turn.
Insect and disease control: –
Due to not having timely insect and disease control, the crop is likely to be ruined. For this, it is necessary to keep looking at the crop. The biggest threat to this crop is from pests, these insects also spread viral diseases.
To avoid this, spraying of Metasystox 0.1 percent 2 to 3 times at 15 days is necessary. Apart from this, spraying of Indofil M-45 is necessary to prevent scorching disease.
Avoidance of frost: – Irrigation is necessary to avoid frost. It should be digged when its leaves turn yellow. Good potato yields are between 300 and 350 quintals in common varieties and 350 to 600 quintals in hybrid varieties. Which is important from the point of view of farmers’ benefit.