Butter:- Common Defects, Causes, and Remedies


Common defects in butter:

 1) Colour defects-

DefectsReasonCorrective action
MottledImproper washing, salting and workingProper washing, salting and working
Streaky and wavyImproper workingProper working
Dull or paleOver workingProper working

2) Flavour defects:

DefectsReasonCorrective action
Acid or sourUse of acid and under neutralized creamUse of sweet and well neutralized cream
AlkalineOver neutralization of creamWell neutralization
BitterAction of lipase and proteolytic bacteria on creamProper testing of cream
CheesyCasein breakdown by proteolytic bacteriaStorage of cream at or below 5˚C
CookedOver pasteurizationProper pasteurization
FishyStorage of high acid salted butter in presence of copper or ironProper storage
FlatLow diacetyl content, low salt and excessing washing of butterAdequate ripening of cream before churning, correct salt treatment and proper washing
RancidFat hydrolysis by lipaseInactivation of lipase by proper pasteurization
OxidisedFat oxidation by sunlight in presence of copper or ironProper pasteurization and vacuum pasteurization of cream
StaleImproper storage of cream and butterProper storage of cream and butter
YeastyUse of old creamUse of fresh cream

Read More:- Butter: – Classification, Neutralisation, and ripening of cream

3) Body and texture defects:

DefectsReasonCorrective action
CrumblyChange in fat composition and abrupt chilling of butterControlled cooling, ageing, churning and washing
GreasyOverworking and high washing temp.Use of app. Washing temp.
GummyPresence of high melting point fatSelective feeding and proper working
LeakyOver churning, improper cooling and washing with high temp. waterChurning, cooling and use of washing water of adequate temp.
GrainyIncorrect neutralization of acid cream and oiling off fat during butter manufacturingCorrect neutralization of cream and avoiding of oiling off
SpongyHigh churning temp. and use of low melting point fatsProper churning temp. and fat combination
StickyOverworkingProper working
GrittyImproper saltingProper salting

Churning of cream:

  Objective- To produce butter from cream.


1) Preparation of churn.

2) Filling cream into churn.

 3) Addition of colour (annatto and carotene is added).

4) After initial rotating the churn for 10-15 min the liberated gas is removed.

5) Breaking stage.

6) Churning is continued till butter grains of desired size is achieved.

      Significance– Churning of cream is agitation at suitable temperature until the fat globules adheres forming larger masses, hence separation of fat and serum occurs.  Fat exists in continuous phase of emulsion and is stable. As long as it remains intact there is no formation of butter.

Factors affecting churnability of cream:

  • 1)Chemical composition of fats: Increase in proportion of short fat shortens the churning period, diminishes the firmness of butter and increases fat loss in butter milk.
  • 2)Size of fat globules: Higher the proportion of small-sized fat globules, longer the churning time and greater the fat loss in buttermilk.
  • 3)Force of surface tension: Disturbance in this force is required for butter making because it maintains individuality of fat globules.
  • 4)Phenomenon of adsorption: Surface layer of fat globules contain adsorbed phospholipid protein complex which resists de-emulsion.
  • 5)Electric charge: Fat globules have negative charge and repel each other. The charge decreases as acidity of cream increases.
  • 6)Viscosity: Increased viscosity retards churning.
  • 7)Concentration of fat globule in cream: It promotes rapid aggregation.
  • 8)Temperature of cream: Optimum churning temp. is 9-11˚C. Higher churning temp. causes short churning time.
  • 9)Fat percentage of cream: Higher percentage of cream lowers churning period.
  • 10)Acidity of cream: Acid cream churns more rapidly than sweet cream. 11)Load of churn: Overloading prolongs churning time.
  • 12)Nature of agitation: Agitation influenced by size, type and rpm of churn affecting churning period.

Read More:- Butter: – Classification, Neutralisation, and ripening of cream



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