Basically, The word horticulture is derived from the Latin word meaning Hortus enclosure( garden)and culture meaning cultivation. Thus, Horticulture means the cultivation of garden crops. It may be defined as the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, and crops.
Horticulture is the branch of science that studies grains, flowers, and plants, from growing to marketing them. Horticulture is a field of science, technology, and marketing of plants used for human use. It includes both food and non-edible crops. Food crops include fruits, vegetables, and cereals, while inedible crops include flowers and plants. Horticulture experts use their knowledge, skills, and techniques to produce plants for human personal and social needs on a large scale. Horticulture studies many branches of science, such as Physics, Chemistry, Geology, and Biology. Apart from this, subjects like social science, commerce, marketing, and health care are also taught in it.
Branches of Horticulture
Horticultural sciences named as a distinct branch of agricultural sciences and can be divided into four different branches as follows.
a) Pomology: It deals with the cultivation of fruit crops.
b) Olericulture: It deals with the cultivation of vegetable crops.
c) Floriculture: It deals with the cultivation of ornamental fruits and landscaping.
d) Fruit and vegetable preservation: It deals with the principles of fruit and vegetable preservation.
a) Nursery plant production
b) Plantation and Medicinal plants
c) Ornamental gardening
d) Landscape gardening
Importance of Horticulture
a) Horticulture crops per hectare yield is higher than other field crops. for example, the fruit area of land gives more yield.
b) High income is obtained from one unit area of land.
c) Best utilization of wasteland.
d) Several industries like canning, essential oils, etc. provide work for many people.
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HORTICULTURE IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR 3 REASONS
a. Economic Importance
• Providing jobs.
• Producing food.
• Increasing home value through landscaping
b. Aesthetic Importance
• Aesthetic = Appearance
• Improves the appearance of homes & buildings through landscaping.
• Improves the appearance of land from fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops are grown
c. Environmental Appearance
• Provides health & comfort by
• Cleaning the air.
• Preventing erosion.
• Providing nutrition.