India is the largest producer of cardamom. India’s Cardamom producing states are Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamilnadu. The main characteristics of this plant are verdant throughout the year. Cardamom has a lot of benefits like mouth purification and spices.
Due to the cardamom’s odour, it is used in tea and sweets making. Its plant is 3 to 4 feet high and 1 to2 foot tall. Cardamom is cultivated in tropical forests where shade and moist found in the sea wind. Red and loam soil is suitable for the farming of cardamom. Mainly it is of two types small and big Cardamom.
Here, we discuss green small Cardamom.
For the farming of cardamom red and loamy soil is used. Its cultivation can be used in other types of soil with the appropriate supervision. The pH value for its cultivation is between 5 to 7.5.
CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURE:
The farming of cardamom is done in tropical climate mainly. At present, it can be cultivated in different parts of India with better techniques. For its cultivation of about 1500 millimeter rain, moist air, and shading place. The better development of these plants occurs at a minimum of 10°C in winter and a maximum of 35°C temperature in summer.
The cardamom has two species mainly which are known as small or large and green or black cardamom.
Green cardamom is also known as small ilaichi. Cardamom benefits in different forms of consumption. It can be used in sweets mouth purification and medicines, and prayers or rituals, etc. It is a perennial plant which gives yield up to 10-12year.
The remains of the previous crop are withdrawal before the cultivation of Cardamom. After the first cultivation of Cardamom, linhay is made in the field for water protection so that plants occupy the necessary amount of irrigation due to rainwater. Then do the plain farm by the leveler after deep cultivation.
For the Plantation on-farm rams (medh), rams are made from the distance of 1/2to 2feet if you want to plant a crop on plain then prepare the pit from the distance of 2to 2.5feet.
Mix the fertilizer and dung manure in the soil at an appropriate amount in the pit and farm rams. The field preparation is done a fortnight before planting it.
CARDAMOM PLANTATION, DISEASES, AND YIELD:
The plant is prepared in the nursery for the farming of the cardamom. The seeds are planted at a distance of 10cm in the nursery.
Before planting the seeds they are treated with cow urine or Trichoderma. About one kg of seeds is enough for one hectare of land. About 20 to 25kg compost mixture put in each bed during field bed preparation for planting a seed.
After seed planting, do irrigation then cover them with dry grass till seed sprouting. Then, after the completion of the plant fully, the plant is about one-foot length now this is planted in the field.
PLANTATION TIME AND TECHNIQUES:
Planting work is done before 1to 2months. Nursery plant is set in a field in raining season during July month so that the plant don’t need irrigation and its development become better.
The cardamom plant is set in a shaded place. The plant to plants distance kept 60cm and use the jig- jag way.
IRRIGATION OF PLANT:
After setting the plant in the field irrigation is do e immediately. The plant is given water in the interval of 3-4 days in summer and about 10-15 days in winter to keep moist soil.
AMOUNT OF FERTILIZER:
Normally, before setting the plant into the field each plant should be given about 10kg old dung manure or vermicompost and poultry manure or neem cake are given about 2-3 years.
Diseases of Plant:
There is less disease on the cardamom plant so less amount of loss can be seen in its yield.
CLUMP AND FUNGAL DISEASE:
Due to the clump or fungal effects on the cards plant, it destroys wholly. The leaves are shrinked and yield is affected.
Treat the plant to the Trichoderma and the affected plant is destroyed from the roots.
It attacks the plant leaves and affects its growth. Whiteflies can be seen under the leaves’ dorsal side which destroys the leaves.
Spray the mixture of caustic soda and neem water.
It affects the soft part of the Cardamom plant and destroys it.
For its prevention, you should use bacillus spray.
HARVESTING AND CLEANING OF PLANT:
Harvesting of the plant is done little time before the seed ripened. After harvesting cleaning of the seeds is done then dry the seeds capsule at the temperature of 8-12degree.
After years to the cardamom, plant yield can found. Dry Cardamom yield from one hectare of land is about 130-150kg which has a market value of 2000rs per kg.
Benefits of cardamom:
Cardamom has a lot of benefits. some of them are:
- The main benefits of cardamom are that it shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
- It has some anti-bacterial properties.
- It may help in lowering your elevated blood pressure.
- It is beneficial in treating bad breath.