Biological control or management of phytonemetodes

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Biological control or management of phytonemetodes:-

  • The management of phytonematodes by the application of living beings.
  • It includes microbiota as protozoa, bacteria, fungi, some arthropodes as parasites or pathogens, to regulate nemic population.
  • The macrobiota i.e, predatory plants and animals (Amphibians, reptiles, and birds) are also used the phytonematode (harmful)
  • These parasitic and pathogenic may harm directly or indirectly by the secretion of metabolites act as an antigen.
  • Usually these antigens are systemic, hence act in an association of native enzyme.
  • By the utilization of these techniques used by the wild varieties for nematode regulation, Bioformulation can be taken into consideration. But it is a challenging issue to identify those components or ameidments.
  • The success achieved in biocontrol by the bioformulation after the discovery of fungi like Paecilogmyces lilacinus, Pochonia chlamydosporia
  • After the discovery of PGPR(plant growth promoting (rhizobacteria) the regulation of nemic population became quite easier.
  • Endophytic mychorhzas in rhizoshphere.
  • A foresaid fauna competes with nematodes for microhabitat and niche. This competition may not allow the proper growth of PPNS.
  • Besides niche competition, these rhizobacteria and fungi may also responsible for the development of resistance against PPNS.
  • Some successful PGPR strains are:- Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chrochoccum
  • Arbascular mychorhizal fungi, especially Glomus mossae
  • Glomus fasciculatum have shown promising impact on control of root knot or cyst nematodes.
  • These fungi regulates PPNs by following ways:-
  • Niche competition, Acts as root modifiers
  • Directly damage cyst of female.
  • There is also a group of arthropoda i.e Thysanura and Thysanoptera, collembolas are also acts as predation for nematodes.
  • Mites may also invade the body of nematodes, usually through natural openiging cause behavioral damage through, irritation, itching, and inflammation.
  • There are some crustaceans like brachypods and tachigrades that may also responsible for the nematode.
  • Read Also:- Pratylenchus penetrans (lesion Nematode)

Regulatory Method for PPNS Management:-

  • The phyto-parasitic nematodes are expanding globally due to anthropogenic activities. Therefore, directly or indirectly human activities are responsible for the worldwide dispersal of the PPNs.
  • Thus time has come now, to regulate the nematode population by the amendment of certain legislation
  • Such type legislations are usually known as quarantine acts.
  • The objectives of these acts are to limit the dispersal and invasion of exotic PPNs.
  • If already introduced the eradicate them form environment

For example:- Radopholus was first into kerala in nilgin reigon through banana rhizome.

Also Read:- Radopholus similis (Burrowing nematode)

Pest Risk Analysis (PRA):-

In the scientific or numerical calculation to know the extent of damage caused by pests.

There are three major amendments for plant protection are:-

  • International plant protection convention (IPPC).
  • WTO agreements on the application of phytosanitary measures.
  •  (convention on biological diversity (CBD)

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